Carbide, diamond and ceramic materials are used for manufacturing yarn feeders and calibrating metal wires. A study of modified ceramics preparation from refractory alumina and zirconia with improved physical–mechanical properties has been carried out for this purpose. Ceramics were prepared from industrial micron powders of corundum and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) with the addition of reactive fibrous nanostructured powders Al2O3-MgO and ZrO2-Y2O3. The billets were obtained by static pressing with subsequent annealing at the 1600 – 1700оС. During the consolidation of corundum powder, the nanoparticles hindered the process of alumina recrystallization, organizing a regular plate-columnar structure. The compressive strength of the ceramics and the degree of deformation before failure were increased by 1.5-2 times. The modified PSZ ceramics had a cellular structure; the nanoparticles of ZrO2-Y2O3 were located on the surface of zirconia microparticles. The ceramics strength was increased by 2-2.5 times. Therefore nanostructured powders regulate the structure and properties of composite ceramics.